This has given rise to the industrialization of This has given rise to the industrialization of a type of crime where the commodity—personal information—moves far too quickly for conventional law enforcement methods to keep pace. Cyber criminal tools pose a direct threat to security and play an increasingly important role in facilitating most forms of organised crime and terrorism. Challenge 1 There is now a sophisticated and self-sufficient digital underground economy in which data is the illicit commodity.
Offenders can learn to recognize thinking errors and to understand how those errors can lead to behavior that gets them into trouble Wanberg and Milkman The core components of Thinking for a Change are described below.
For more information on Framework for Recovery, go to www. Wanberg and Milkman's module is available as a provider's guide and participant's workbook. Thinking for a Change View in own window NIC's Thinking for a Change helps offenders learn to change criminal behaviors using three basic techniques: Offenders learn how to examine their thinking, feelings, beliefs, and attitudes in order to understand how these factors contribute to criminal behaviors.
Participants explore alternatives to antisocial and criminal behaviors. Offenders integrate the skills they learn and use them to work through difficult situations without engaging in criminal behavior. Thinking for a Change is designed to work in a variety of criminal justice settings, and is ideally implemented in groups of 8 to Criminal thinking also can be addressed using the same paradigms used in substance abuse relapse prevention.
Many of the early warning signs and risk factors for relapse will be the same or very similar to those warning signs and risk factors for the client's criminal thinking. It is important that the focus on addressing criminal thinking not become another way of stigmatizing criminal justice clients.
Criminal thinking should be viewed as the outcome of maladaptive coping strategies rather than as a permanent fixture of the offender's personality.
Advice to the Counselor: This includes identifying offenders' primary thinking errors, instructing clients to self-monitor when these errors occur, and providing regular feedback from peers to prevent reversion to criminal behavior.
For example, a particular client may try to avoid the work of personal change by repetitively demeaning others, including the counselor. These maladaptive and manipulative coping strategies readily undermine the treatment process unless they are addressed.
Addressing client manipulativeness involves Counselor or treatment group identifying the primary thinking errors they observe Instructing the client to begin self-monitoring when these occur journaling Providing regular feedback to the client, usually from peers in a treatment group Criminal code Offenders tend to have a shared value system that includes refusal both to cooperate with authority and to confront negative behavior by others.
The criminal code explains why good treatment programs stressing personal accountability, peer support for change, and peer confrontation of negative behavior are so threatening to the offender culture. It also explains why it is often necessary to separate inmates in treatment in correctional institutions from the general inmate population.
It is sometimes necessary to remove clients from a negative situation to give treatment a chance. Sometimes, a newer treatment group might be pressured to revert to the criminal code with antisocial values predominating over prosocial values. These situations require careful confrontation, limit-setting, and clear expectations with consequences by treatment staff.
Addressing Anger and Hostility Dealing with anger and hostility with criminal justice clients is much like dealing with anger and hostility with other clients.
However, due to their higher incidence of antisocial personality disorder, criminal justice clients are more likely to use anger as a manipulative coping strategy and less likely to be able to separate anger from other feelings. Clients may be angry for a variety of reasons, including Genuine feelings of being treated unfairly Limited affect recognition; confusing anger with other feelings Using anger to maintain adrenaline Goal-directed manipulative coping strategies such as deflecting attention from other issues or to keep others off-balance Often, problems with expressed anger relate to an inability to express other feelings—a problem with affect.
Interventions involve teaching criminal justice clients to recognize their affective states and to understand the difference between feelings and action. Many criminal justice clients especially men have limited understanding of and insight into what they are feeling at particular points in time.
The counselor's goal, then, is to broaden affect emotions identification. Offenders who abuse substances also have a tendency to think that if they feel it, they must act on it.
Learning the relationships between behavior, thinking, and feeling, and how each affects the other, is helpful to many criminal justice clients. Learning that feelings do not equal thinking or behavior can be a revelation for many offenders. Counselors should point out that feeling it doesn't make it so, nor does it mean the client has to act on the feeling.
Identifying the feeling s.
Maybe other feelings are involved, such as embarrassment or guilt. Understanding clearly where the feeling is coming from. What is the real source of the anger? Identifying the goals the anger is serving e.
Identifying the goals the anger is undermining e. Working toward taking the longer view e. Several additional strategies can help clients to recognize their feelings. For example, counselors can set boundaries on how anger and hostility can be expressed and set limits as to reasonable duration of expression of anger and hostility.
Once the offender calms down, the counselor can refocus on what the client can learn from the situation and how the client can benefit in the future. Counselors can also use peers in a group setting to explore how the client might use anger and hostility for secondary gain.Exploring a wide range of issues impacting how law enforcement professionals fight crime, experts from virtually all regions of the globe engage in discourse that Price: $ may differ from those impacting Puerto Ricans, Cubans, or immigrants from Central America.
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